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Research paper of

Introduction We discovered serious weaknesses in WPA2, a protocol that secures all modern protected Research paper of-Fi networks.

Concretely, attackers can use this novel attack technique to read information that was previously assumed to be safely encrypted. The weaknesses are in the Wi-Fi standard itself, and not in individual products or implementations. Therefore, any correct implementation of WPA2 is likely affected. To prevent the attack, users must update affected products as soon as security updates become available. Note that if your device supports Wi-Fi, it is most likely affected. Our detailed research paper can already be downloaded.

Update October 2018: we have a follow-up paper where we generalize attacks, analyze more handshakes, bypass Wi-Fi’s official defense, audit patches, and enhance attacks using implementation-specific bugs. Demonstration As a proof-of-concept we executed a key reinstallation attack against an Android smartphone. In this demonstration, the attacker is able to decrypt all data that the victim transmits. For an attacker this is easy to accomplish, because our key reinstallation attack is exceptionally devastating against Linux and Android 6.

In general, any data or information that the victim transmits can be decrypted. Details Our main attack is against the 4-way handshake of the WPA2 protocol. At the same research, the 4-way handshake also paper a fresh encryption key that will be used to encrypt all subsequent traffic. Key reinstallation attacks: high level description In a key reinstallation attack, the of tricks a victim into reinstalling an already-in-use key.

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This is achieved by manipulating and replaying cryptographic handshake messages. Key reinstallation attacks: concrete example against the 4-way handshake As described in the introduction of the research paper, the idea behind a key reinstallation attack can be summarized as follows. When a client joins a network, it executes the 4-way handshake to negotiate a fresh encryption key. It will install this key after receiving message 3 of the 4-way handshake. Practical impact In our opinion, the most widespread and practically impactful attack is the key reinstallation attack against the 4-way handshake. We base this judgement on two observations.

First, during our own research we found that most clients were affected by it. The ability to decrypt packets can be used to decrypt TCP SYN packets. This allows an adversary to obtain the TCP sequence numbers of a connection, and hijack TCP connections. As a result, even though WPA2 is used, the adversary can now perform one of the most common attacks against open Wi-Fi networks: injecting malicious data into unencrypted HTTP connections. If the victim uses either the WPA-TKIP or GCMP encryption protocol, instead of AES-CCMP, the impact is especially catastrophic. Against these encryption protocols, nonce reuse enables an adversary to not only decrypt, but also to forge and inject packets.

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Let’s look at this enthymeme in a syllogistic structure: To help you understand how induction and deduction can work together to form a solid argument, you may want to look at the United States Declaration of Independence.

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