White begins by tracing the introduction of a thesis of the 19th century German historian Heinrich Brunner, who claimed that the switch to mounted warfare occurred after the Battle of Tours with a Saracen army in 732.
Brunner also claimed that the Muslim incursion into Europe prompted Charles Martel to confiscate church lands to support cavalry. White used linguistic changes and evidence of a drastic change in weapons to support his claim that this change to mounted shock combat occurred in the early 8th century. The lance, White says, is the strongest evidence that the Franks had adopted the stirrup by this time. He further claimed: «The feudal class of the European Middle Ages existed to be armed horsemen, cavaliers fighting in a particular manner which was made possible by the stirrup.
He believed that the stirrup had made the knight. Despite the great influence of White’s book, his ideas of technological determinism were met with criticisms in the following decades. In an April 1963 review of White’s book, the scholars Peter Hayes Sawyer, of the University of Birmingham, and R. They also stated White’s footnotes often contradict his thesis and evidence. Military historian Stephen Morillo, of Wabash College, offered a different explanation for the rise of cavalry in Medieval warfare: that of a lack of centralized government. Furthermore, Morillo examines cases of Frankish warriors fighting on foot—and defeating mounted knights in the process. Even White quoted Brunner as admitting that a good infantry could break a cavalry charge if its soldiers held their ranks.
Morillo used the example of the familia regis, an elite Anglo-Norman infantry unit, as further evidence that a strong central government was the key to developing a strong infantry. It has also been asserted that modern reenactment and experimental archaeology has shown that the stirrup provides very little benefit for a mounted lancer, and a cantled saddle and spurs have a greater effect. Stirrups provide stability for striking in melee after the initial cavalry charge. The World’s Greatest Idea: The Fifty Greatest Ideas that have changed Humanity. The most attention-grabbing bit of White’s introduction of a thesis was the idea that it was the introduction of the stirrup that led to the development of the feudal system.
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1: Stirrup, Mounted Shock Combat, Feudalism, and Chivalry». Technical Determinism: The Stirrup and the Plough». The circle of war in the Middle Ages : essays on medieval military and naval history. This disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Today, gun control is under discussion everywhere. All the tragic gun violence-related events that took place recently and not so recently led not only to grief but to all sorts of speculation on all levels. The topic has become so widely discussed that everyone has something to say on it: from the social science scholars to the celebrities. While everybody agrees that mass shootings should not happen, the gun control as a means to cope with this problem is a controversial approach that polarizes our society. It is always best to look at where the issue begins. In this case, we have to look as far back in time as 1791 when the Second Amendment was passed as an integral part of the Bill of Rights, allowing individuals to possess firearms.
Of course, much time has passed since then, and the spirit of the Second Amendment has been clarified multiple times by court precedents, but apparently, it is not enough, given the fact that the discussion is still far from being concluded. KINDS OF GUN CONTROL ESSAYS Gun control is such a broad topic that a gun control essay can be virtually anything. The issue can be seen from so many angles and discussed on so many levels, that you can tackle such an issue however you like in your essay. As a student, you know that there are several kinds of essays which differ in their form, content, and purpose. Gun control essays are no exception.
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By sharing and clearly identifying their informed speculations, authors can play a valuable role in stimulating further research.