In the United States and some other countries, there are also coursework synonym types of vocational, technical, or professional degrees that are referred to as doctorates.
Professional doctorates have historically come about to meet the needs of practitioners in a variety of disciplines. The term doctor derives from Latin, meaning «teacher» or «instructor». Catholic church, which required the applicant to pass a test, to take an oath of allegiance and pay a fee. Middle Ages included only theology, law, and medicine. University doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild.
The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of «Masters of Arts» was seven years, matching the apprenticeship term for other occupations. University degrees, including doctorates, were originally restricted to men. The use and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and is subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders. Professional doctorates developed in the United States from the 19th century onward. The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M. The modern research degree, in the coursework synonym of the German-style Ph.
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1960s, by which time the LLB was generally taken as a graduate degree. The older-style doctorates, now usually called higher doctorates in the United Kingdom, take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are now less common in some countries and are often awarded honoris causa. Since the Middle Ages, the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities has proliferated throughout the world.
Practice varies from one country to another. While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as «doctor», use of the title varies widely, depending on the type and the associated occupation. Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is publishable, at least in principle, in a peer-reviewed academic journal. Criteria for admission to doctoral programs varies.
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