Text Annotation is the practice and the result of adding a note or gloss to a text, which may include highlights or underlining, comments, annotation paper, tags, and links.
This article covers both private and socially shared text annotations, including hand-written and information technology-based annotation. For information on annotation of Web content, including images and other non-textual content, see also Web annotation. Text annotation may be as old as writing on media, where it was possible to produce an additional copy with a reasonable effort. It became a prominent activity around 1000 AD in Talmudic commentaries and Arabic rhetorics treaties. Computer-based technologies have provided new opportunities for individual and socially shared text annotations that support multiple purposes, including readers’ individual reading goals, learning, social reading, writing and editing, and other practices. Text annotations can serve a variety of functions for both private and public reading and communication practices. Educational research in text annotation has examined the role that both private and shared text annotations can play in supporting learning goals and communication.
Other areas of educational research investigate the benefits of socially shared text annotations for collaborative learning, both for paper-based and IT-based annotation sharing. For example, studies by Joanna Wolfe have investigated the benefits of exposure to others’ annotations on student readers and writers. While shared annotations can benefit individual readers, it is important to note that, «since the 1920s, literacy theory has increasingly emphasized the importance of social factors in the development of literacy. More recent research in the effects of shared text annotations has focused on the learning applications for web-based annotation systems, some of which were developed based on design recommendations from studies outlined above. The collaboration with peers and experts around a shared text improved these skills and brought the communities’ understanding closer together. Text annotations have long been used in writing and revision processes as a way for reviewers to suggest changes and communicate about a text. In book publishing, for example, the collaboration of authors and editors to develop and revise a manuscript frequently involves exchanges of both in-line revisions or notes as well as marginal annotations.
Much research into the functionality and design of collaborative IT-based writing systems, which often support text annotation, has occurred in the area of computer-supported cooperative work. Research in the design and development of annotation systems uses specific terminology to refer to distinct structural components of annotations and also distinguishes among options for digital annotation displays. The structural components of any annotation can be roughly divided into three primary elements: a body, annotation paper, and a marker. The body of an annotation includes reader-generated symbols and text, such as handwritten commentary or stars in the margin. Annotation interfaces may also allow highlighting or underlining, as well as threaded discussions.
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Sharing and communicating through annotations anchored to specific documents is sometimes referred to as anchored discussion. In the 1980s and 1990s, a number of such systems were built in the context of libraries, patent offices, and legal text processing. A different approach to distributed authoring consists in first gathering many annotations from a wide public, and then integrate them all in order to produce a further version of a document. This approach was pioneered by Stet, the system put in place to gather comments on drafts of version 3 of the GNU General Public License.
Specialized Web-based text annotations exist in the context of scientific publication, either for refereeing or post-publication. The on-line journal PLoS ONE, published by the Public Library of Science, has developed its own Web-based system where scientists and the public can comment on published articles. A Short Review of Annotation and Annotation Systems». From the Margins to the Center: The Future of Annotation». Journal of Business and Technical Communication. Reading and Writing the Electronic Book». Synthesis Lectures on Information Concepts, Retrieval, and Services.
Effects of Annotations on Student Readers and Writers. Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries. Annotations and the Collaborative Digital Library: Effects of an Aligned Annotion Interface on Student Argumentation and Reading Strategies». In the Company of Readers: The Digital Library Book as «Practiced Place».
IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. Encouraging Reading and Collaboration Using Classroom Salon. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education. Implementation of an Online Social Annotation Tool in a College English Course.
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